Harrick PlasmaApplicationsNanoscale CleaningAtomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a versatile tool that directly measures and maps intermolecular forces with atomic resolution. AFM is used across a wide range of disciplines to characterize mechanical properties, to generate 3D surface profiles, and to manipulate substrates. While there are numerous AFM techniques, surface chemistry and cleanliness always play an important role in achieving accurate results.

Plasma treatment is frequently used for the preparation of AFM probes and substrates. The main purposes of plasma treatment are to:

  • Remove organic contamination
  • Increase surface hydrophilicity
  • Enable surface coatings (Ex: Silanes)

Removing nanoscale organic contamination from AFM probes is essential because the contamination is usually hydrophobic and can interfere with the AFM tip. In addition to removing hydrophobic interference, plasma treatment adds polar functional groups (hydroxyl, carbonyl, amine) to the cantilever surface which can improve AFM sensitivity. Increased hydrophilicity further subsequently enables coating AFM probes with a uniform distribution. As a result, plasma treatment ultimately can broadly improve AFM functionality.

Harrick Plasma cleaners have been cited in hundreds of papers involving their use in atomic force microscopy. Below, you will find articles organized by application area and treated materials.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Probe Plasma Cleaning

Silicon Nitride Probes

Silicon Nitride Probe Articles

de Beer S, Wennink P, van der Weide-Grevelink M, and Mugele F. “Do Epitaxy and Temperature Affect Oscillatory Solvation Forces?”. Langmuir 2010 26: 13245–13250 1021/la102120h

de Beer S, van den Ende D, and Mugele F. “Dissipation and oscillatory solvation forces in confined liquids studied by small-amplitude atomic force spectroscopy”. Nanotechnology 2010 21: 325703 (11 pp.) 1088/0957-4484/21/32/325703

Farshchi-Tabrizi M, Kappl M, Cheng YJ, Gutmann J, and Butt HJ. “On the adhesion between fine particles and nanocontacts: An atomic force microscope study”. Langmuir 2006 22: 2171–2184 1021/la052760z

Farshchi-Tabrizia M, Kappl M, and Butt H. “Influence of Humidity on Adhesion: An Atomic Force Microscope Study”. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 2008 22: 181–203 1163/156856108×306948

Grant LM, Ederth T, and Tiberg F. “Influence of surface hydrophobicity on the layer properties of adsorbed nonionic surfactants”. Langmuir 2000 16: 2285–2291 1021/la990700l

Hjalmarsson N, Atkin R, and Rutland MW. “Is the boundary layer of an ionic liquid equally lubricating at higher temperature?”. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2016 18: 9232–9239 1039/c5cp05837f

Wang L, Siretanu I, Duits MHG, Stuart MAC, and Mugele F. “Ion effects in the adsorption of carboxylate on oxide surfaces, studied with quartz crystal microbalance”. Colloids Surf., A 2016 494: 30–38 1016/j.colsurfa.2016.01.019

 Silicon Cantilevers with Gold Coatings

Silicon Cantilevers with Gold Coating Articles

Lin S, V, Grotz K, Siretanu I, Schwierz N, and Mugele F. “Ion-Specific and pH-Dependent Hydration of Mica–Electrolyte Interfaces”. Langmuir 2019 35: 5737-5745. 1021/acs.langmuir.9b00520

Song Y, Zhao B, Zhang L, Junhong L, Wang S, Dong Y, and Hu J. “The Origin of the Snap-In” in the Force Curve between AFM Probe and the Water/Gas Interface of Nanobubbles””. ChemPhysChem 2014 15: 492–499 1002/cphc.201301081

Vidal CMP, Zhu W, Manohar S, Aydin B, Keiderling TA, Messersmith PB, and Bedran-Russo A. “Collagen-collagen interactions mediated by plant-derived proanthocyanidins: a spectroscopic and atomic force microscopy study”. Acta Biomater. 2016 41: 110–118 1016/j.actbio.2016.05.026 (coated with Collagen solution)

Colloidal Probes

Colloidal Probe Articles

Armini S, Burtovyy R, Moinpour M, Luzinov I, De Messemaeker J, Whelan CM, and Maex K. “Interaction forces between a glass surface and silica-modified PMMA-Based abrasives for CMP measured by colloidal probe AFM”. Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 2007 10: H74–H78 1149/1.2834456

Fielden ML, Hayes RA, and Ralston J. “Oscillatory and ion-correlation forces observed in direct force measurements between silica surfaces in concentrated CaCl2 solutions”. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2000 2: 2623–2628 1039/b001672l

Feiler A, Larson I, Jenkins P, and Attard P. “A quantitative study of interaction forces and friction in aqueous colloidal systems”. Langmuir 2000 16: 10269–10277 1021/la000881n

Feiler A, Jenkins P, and Ralston J. “Metal oxide surfaces separated by aqueous solutions of linear polyphosphates: DLVO and non-DLVO interaction forces”. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2000 2: 5678–5683 1039/b005505k

Gentsch R, Pippig F, Schmidt S, Cernoch P, Polleux J, and Borner HG. “Single-Step Electrospinning to Bioactive Polymer Nanofibers”. Macromolecules 2011 44: 453–461 1021/ma102847a

Guriyanova S, Semin B, Rodrigues T, Butt H, and Bonaccurso E. “Hydrodynamic drainage force in a highly confined geometry: role of surface roughness on different length scales”. Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2010 8: 653–663 1007/s10404-009-0498-2

McNamee C, and Kawakami H. “Effect of the Surfactant Charge and Concentration on the Change in the Forces between Two Charged Surfaces in Surfactant Solutions by a Liquid Flow”. Langmuir 2020 36: 1887-1897. 1021/acs.langmuir.9b03377

Radtchenko IL, Papastavrou G, and Borkovec M. “Direct force measurements between cellulose surfaces and colloidal silica particles”. Biomacromolecules 2005 6: 3057–3066 1021/bm050371d

Rentsch S, Siegenthaler H, and Papastavrou G. “Diffuse layer properties of thiol-modified gold electrodes probed by direct force measurements”. Langmuir 2007 23: 9083–9091 1021/la700987u

Semin B, Guriyanova S, and Bonaccurso E. “Nonconstant piezo velocity in highly dynamic atomic force spectroscopy”. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2006 77: 116107 1063/1.2372738

Scarratt L. R. J, Zhu L, and Neto C. “Large Effective Slip on Lubricated Surfaces Measured with Colloidal Probe AFM”. Langmuir 2020. 1021/acs.langmuir.8b03767

Thormann E, Simonsen AC, Hansen PL, and Mouritsen OG. “Interactions between a Polystyrene Particle and Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces in Aqueous Solutions”. Langmuir 2008 24: 7278–7284 1021/la8005162

Yang SH, Kim Y, Purushotham KP, Yoo J-M, Choi Y, and Dagalakis N. “AFM characterization of nanopositioner in-plane stiffnesses”. Sens. Actuators, A 2010 163: 383–387 1016/j.sna.2010.07.006

Zhu L, Attard P, and Neto C. “Reliable Measurements of Interfacial Slip by Colloid Probe Atomic Force Microscopy. II. Hydrodynamic Force Measurements”. Langmuir 2011 27: 6712–6719 10.1021/la104597d

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Probe Modification

Antifouling (PLL-g-PEG Coating)

Antifouling Articles

Perrino C, Lee S, Choi SW, Maruyama A, and Spencer ND. “A Biomimetic Alternative to Poly(ethylene glycol) as an Antifouling Coating: Resistance to Nonspecific Protein Adsorption of Poly(l-lysine)-graft-dextran”. Langmuir 2008 24: 8850–8856 1021/la800947z

Stiefel P, Zambelli T, and Vorholt JA. “Isolation of Optically Targeted Single Bacteria by Application of Fluidic Force Microscopy to Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs from the Phyllosphere”. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2013 79: 4895–4905 1128/aem.01087-13

Polyelectrolyte Deposition

Polyelectrolyte Deposition Articles

Baigl D, Ober R, Qu D, Fery A, and Williams CE. “Correlation length of hydrophobic polyelectrolyte solutions”. Europhys. Lett. 2003 62: 588–594 1209/epl/i2003-00391-2

Block S, and Helm C. “Single Polyelectrolyte Layers Adsorbed at High Salt Conditions: Polyelectrolyte Brush Domains Coexisting with Flatly Adsorbed Chains”. Macromolecules 2009 42: 6733–6740 1021/ma901209x

Bosio V, Dubreuil F, Bogdanovic G, and Fery A. “Interactions between silica surfaces coated by polyelectrolyte multilayers in aqueous environment: comparison between precursor and multilayer regime”. Colloids Surf., A 2004 243: 147–155 1016/j.colsurfa.2004.06.011

Krass H, Papastavrou G, and Kurth DG. “Layer-by-layer self-assembly of a polyelectrolyte bearing metal ion coordination and electrostatic functionality”. Chem. Mater. 2003 15: 196–203 1021/cm020808d

Papastavrou G, Kirwan LJ, and Borkovec M. “Decomposing bridging adhesion between polyelectrolyte layers into single molecule contributions”. Langmuir 2006 22: 10880–10884 1021/la062046x

Qu D, Baigl D, Williams CE, Mohwald H, and Fery A. “Dependence of structural forces in polyelectrolyte solutions on charge density: A combined AFM SAXS study”. Macromolecules 2003 36: 6878–6883 1021/ma034305k

Silicon Nitride Modified with Metal Coating (Gold, Chromium)

Metal Coating Articles

Dhayal B, Henne WA, Doorneweerd DD, Reifenberger RG, and Low PS. “Detection of Bacillus subtilis spores using peptide-functionalized cantilever arrays”. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006 128: 3716–3721 1021/ja0570887

Janke M, Herrig A, Austermann J, Gerke V, Steinem C, and Janshoff A. “Actin Binding of Ezrin Is Activated by Specific Recognition of PIP2-Functionalized Lipid Bilayers”. Biochemistry 2008 47: 3762–3769 1021/bi702542s

Silicon Nitride Modified with Nanoparticles

Nanoparticle Coating Articles

Nugroho RWN, Pettersson T, Odelius K, Hoglund A, and Albertsson A-C. “Force Interactions of Nonagglomerating Polylactide Particles Obtained through Covalent Surface Grafting with Hydrophilic Polymers”. Langmuir 2013 29: 8873–8881 1021/la401076m (PLA Particles)

Yumiyama S, Fujisawa E, Konishi Y, and Nomura T. “Control of colloidal behavior of polystyrene latex nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity toward yeast cells using water-soluble polymers”. Adv. Powder Technol. 2018 29: 2204-2210 1016/j.apt.2018.06.004

Silicon Nitride Modified with Polymer Coatings (PEI, PVA , PDMS)

Polymer Coating Articles
  • Best JP, Cui J, Mullner M, and Caruso F. “Tuning the Mechanical Properties of Nanoporous Hydrogel Particles via Polyme r Cross-Linking”. Langmuir 2013 29: 9824–9831 1021/la402146t
  • Cui J, De Rose R, Best JP, Johnston AP, Alcantara S, Liang K, Such GK, Kent SJ, and Caruso F. “Mechanically Tunable, Self-Adjuvanting Nanoengineered Polypeptide Particles”. Adv. Mater. 2013 25: 3468–3472 1002/adma.201300981
  • Pericet-Camara R, Papastavrou G, and Borkovec M. “Effective Charge of Adsorbed Poly (amidoamine) Dendrimers from Direct Force Measurements”. Macromolecules 2009 42: 1749–1758 1021/ma802374z (PAMAM dendrimers)
  • Stewart MP, Hodel AW, Spielhofer A, Cattin CJ, Muller DJ, and Helenius J. “Wedged AFM-cantilevers for parallel plate cell mechanics”. Methods 2013 60: 186–194 1016/j.ymeth.2013.02.015

Silicon Nitride Cantilever Silanization (APTES, FDTS, GPTMS, ODTS)

Silanization Articles

Block S, and Helm C. “Conformation of poly (styrene sulfonate) layers physisorbed from high salt solution studied by force measurements on two different length scales”. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008 112: 9318–9327 1021/jp8020672

Cao X, Gan X, Peng Y, Wang Y, Zeng X, Lang H, Deng J, and Zou K. “An ultra-low frictional interface combining FDTS SAMs with molybdenum disulfide”. Nanoscale 2018 10: 378-385 1039/C7NR06471C

Christenson W, Yermolenko I, Plochberger B, Camacho-Alanis F, Ros A, Ugarova T, and Ros R. “Combined single cell AFM manipulation and TIRFM for probing the molecular stability of multilayer fibrinogen matrices”. Ultramicroscopy 2014 136: 211–215 1016/j.ultramic.2013.10.009

Lee J, Jung H, and Gunzl A. “Transcriptionally active TFIIH of the early-diverged eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei harbors two novel core subunits but not a cyclin-activating kinase complex”. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 37: 3811 1093/nar/gkp236

Malkovskiy AV, Wagh DA, Longo FM, and Rajadas J. “A strategy for analyzing bond strength and interaction kinetics between Pleckstrin homology domains and PI (4, 5) P2 phospholipids using force distance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance”. The Analyst 2015 140: 4558–4565 1039/c5an00498e (GPTMS)

Nelson EM, Li H, and Timp G. “Direct, Concurrent Measurements of the Forces and Currents Affecting DNA in a Nanopore with Comparable Topography”. ACS Nano 2014 8: 5484–5493 1021/nn405331t (APTES)

Popa I, Papastavrou G, and Borkovec M. “Effective Charge of Adsorbed Poly (amido amine) Dendrimers: Transition from Heterogeneous to Homogeneous Charge Distribution”. Macromolecules 2010 43: 1129–1136 1021/ma902325b

Rigo E, Dong Z, Park J, Kennedy E, Hokmabadi M, Almonte-Garcia L, Ding L, Aluru, N and Timp G. “Measurements of the size and correlations between ions using an electrolytic point contact”. Nature Communications 2019 10. 1038/s41467-019-10265-2

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Substrates

Glass Slides 

Glass Slide Articles

Longstaff M, Gardiner K, Zhuravlev R, Finney J, and Waldow D. “Characterization of morphology in ring-opening metathesis polymerized novel solid block copolymer electrolytes by atomic force microscopy and X-ray scattering”. Electrochimica Acta 2019 298: 339-346. 1016/j.electacta.2018.12.051

Neto J, Taketa T, Bataglioli R, Pimentel S, Santos D, Fiamingo A, Costa C, Campana-Filho S, Carvalho H, and Beppu M. “Tailored chitosan/hyaluronan coatings for tumor cell adhesion: Effects of topography, charge density and surface composition”. Applied Surface Science 2019 486: 508-518. 1016/j.apsusc.2019.04.227

Overton K, Greer H, Ferguson M, Spain E, Elmore D, Nunez M, and Volle C. “Qualitative and Quantitative Changes to E. coli During Treatment with Magainin 2 Observed in Native Conditions by Atomic Force Microscopy”. Langmuir 2019 36: 650-659. 1021/acs.langmuir.9b02726?goto=supporting-info

Vithayaveroj V, Yiacoumi S, and Tsouris C. “Modification of surface forces by metal ion adsorption”. J. Dispersion Sci. Technol. 2003 24: 517–525 1081/dis-120021806

Graphene Substrates

Graphene Articles

Zeng X, Peng Y, and Lang H. “A novel approach to decrease friction of graphene”. Carbon 2017 118: 233-240 1016/j.carbon.2017.03.042

Magnesium oxide (MgO) Substrates

Magnesium oxide (MgO) Articles

Laarz E, Kauppi A, Andersson KM, Kjeldsen AM, and Bergstrom L. “Dispersing multi-component and unstable powders in aqueous media using comb-type anionic polymers”. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2006 89: 1847–1852 1111/j.1551-2916.2006.01055.x

Kauppi A, Andersson KA, and Bergstrom L. “Probing the effect of superplasticizer adsorption on the surface forces using the colloidal probe AFM technique”. Cem. Concr. Res. 2005 35: 133–140 1016/j.cemconres.2004.07.008

Nanoparticles Substrates

Nanoparticle Articles

Considine RF, Drummond CJ, and Dixon DR. “Interaction forces between colloidal silica in aqueous inorganic and natural organic electrolyte solutions”. Aust. J. Chem. 2005 58: 837–844 1071/ch05154

Sokolowski M, Parlak Z, Bartsch C, Zauscher S, and Gradzielski M. “Interaction between soft nanoparticles and phospholipid membranes: effect of the polymer-grafting density on nanoparticle adsorption” ACS Applied Nano Materials 2019 2: 1808-1819. 1021/acsanm.8b01868

Niobium Oxide (Nb5O2) Substrates

Niobium Oxide (Nb5O2) Articles

Pasche S, Voros J, Griesser HJ, Spencer ND, and Textor M. “Effects of ionic strength and surface charge on protein adsorption at PEGylated surfaces”. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005 109: 17545–17552 1021/jp050431+

Pasche S, Textor M, Meagher L, Spencer ND, and Griesser HJ. “Relationship between interfacial forces measured by colloid-probe atomic force microscopy and protein resistance of poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted poly(L-lysine) adlayers on niobia surfaces”. Langmuir 2005 21: 6508–6520 1021/la050386x

Platinum (Pt) Electrode

Platinum (Pt) Electrode Articles

Keist J, Hammons J, Wright P, Evans J and Orme C. “Coupling in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) to study the evolution of zinc morphology during electrodeposition within an imidazolium based ionic liquid electrolyte”. Electrochimica Acta 2020 342: 136073. 1016/j.electacta.2020.136073

Sun T, Blanchard PY, and Mirkin MV. “Cleaning nanoelectrodes with air plasma”. Anal. Chem. 2015 87: 4092–4095 1021/acs.analchem.5b00488

Sapphire Substrates

sapphire Articles

Zhang D, and Gan Y. “Effects of plasma treatment on evolution of surface step-terrace structure of critically cleaned c-plane sapphire substrates: An AFM study”. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2013 285: 211–214 1016/j.apsusc.2013.08.038

Silicon Wafers

Silicon Wafer Articles

Cho C, Bittner N, Choi W, Hsu J, Yu C, and Grunlan J. “Thermally Enhanced n‐Type Thermoelectric Behavior in Completely Organic Graphene Oxide‐Based Thin Films”. Advanced Electronic Materials 2019 5. 1002/aelm.201800465

Huang J, Moghaddam S. Z, Maroni P, and Thormann E. “Swelling behavior, interaction, and electrostatic properties of chitosan/alginate dialdehyde multilayer films with different outermost layer”. Langmuir 2020 36: 3782-3791. 1021/acs.langmuir.0c00330

Luo B, Kim A, Smith J, Ou Z, Wu Z, Kim J, and Chen Q. “Hierarchical self-assembly of 3D lattices from polydisperse anisometric colloids”. Nature Communications 2019 10. 1038/s41467-019-09787-6

McNamee C, and Kawakami H. “Effect of the Surfactant Charge and Concentration on the Change in the Forces between Two Charged Surfaces in Surfactant Solutions by a Liquid Flow” Langmuir 2020 36: 1887-1897. 1021/acs.langmuir.9b03377

Thormann E, Claesson P, and Mouritsen O. “Tuning structural forces between silica surfaces by temperature-induced micellization of responsive block copolymers”. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2010 12: 10730–10735 1039/c004413j

Yang SH, Nosonovsky M, Zhang H, and Chung KH. “Nanoscale water capillary bridges under deeply negative pressure”. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2008 451: 88–92 10.1016/j.cplett.2007.11.068

Featured Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Applications

Cell Biology

Cell Biology & AFM Articles

Angely C, Nguyen N-M, Andre Dias S, Planus E, Pelle G, Louis B, Filoche M, Chenal A, Ladant D, and Isabey D. “Exposure to Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin affects integrin-mediated adhesion and mechanics in alveolar epithelial cells”. Biol. Cell 2017 109: 293-311 1111/boc.201600082

Moreno-Flores S, Benitez R, dM Vivanco M, and Toca-Herrera J. “Stress relaxation and creep on living cells with the atomic force microscope: a means to calculate elastic moduli and viscosities of cell components”. Nanotechnology 2010 21: 445101 1088/0957-4484/21/44/445101

Peng Q, Zhou X, Wang Z, Xie Q, Ma C, Zhang G, and Gong X. “Three-Dimensional Bacterial Motions near a Surface Investigated by Digital Holographic Microscopy: Effect of Surface Stiffness”. Langmuir 2019 35: 12257-12263. 1021/acs.langmuir.9b02103

Samwer M, Schneider MW, Hoefler R, Schmalhorst PS, Jude JG, Zuber J, and Gerlich DW. “DNA Cross-Bridging Shapes a Single Nucleus from a Set of Mitotic Chromosomes”. Cell 2017 170: 956-972.e23 1016/j.cell.2017.07.038

Saravia V, and Toca-Herrera J. “Substrate influence on cell shape and cell mechanics: HepG2 cells spread on positively charged surfaces”. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2009 72: 957–964 1002/jemt.20742

Spoerri P, Strohmeyer N, Sun Z, Fässler R, and Muller D. “Protease-activated receptor signalling initiates α 5 β 1-integrin-mediated adhesion in non-haematopoietic cells”. Nature Materials 2020 19: 218-226. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-019-0580-4

Weder G, Guillaume-Gentil O, Matthey N, Montagne F, Heinzelmann H, Vörös J, and Liley M. “The quantification of single cell adhesion on functionalized surfaces for cell sheet engineering”. Biomaterials 2010 31: 6436e6443 1016/j.biomaterials.2010.04.068

Yermolenko IS, Fuhrmann A, Magonov SN, Lishko VK, Oshkadyerov SP, Ros R, and Ugarova TP. “Origin of the Nonadhesive Properties of Fibrinogen Matrices Probed by Force Spectroscopy”. Langmuir 2010 26: 17269–17277 1021/la101791r

Yang Y, Yu J, Monemian Esfahani A, Seiffert-Sinha K, Xi N, Lee I, Sinha AA, Chen L, Sun Z, Yang R, and Dong L. “Single-cell membrane drug delivery using porous pen nanodeposition”. Nanoscale 2018 10: 12704-12712 1039/C8NR02600A


Nanobubble Articles

An H, Tan BH, Zeng Q, and Ohl C-D. “Stability of nanobubbles formed at the interface of cold water and hot highly oriented pyrolytic graphite”. Langmuir 2016 1021/acs.langmuir.6b01531

Borkent BM, de Beer S, Mugele F, and Lohse D. “On the Shape of Surface Nanobubbles”. Langmuir 2010 26: 260–268 1021/la902121x

Tan BH, An H, and Ohl C-D. “Resolving the Pinning Force of Nanobubbles with Optical Microscopy”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2017 118: 54501 1103/PhysRevLett.118.054501

Wang X, Zhao B, Ma W, Wang Y, Gao X, Tai R, Zhou X, and Zhang L. “Interfacial Nanobubbles on Atomically Flat Substrates with Different Hydrophobicities”. ChemPhysChem 2015 16: 1003–1007 1002/cphc.201402854

Wang X, Zhao B, Hu J, Wang S, Tai R, Gao X, and Zhang L. “Interfacial gas nanobubbles or oil nanodroplets?”. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2017 19: 1108-1114 1039/C6CP05137E

Xiong X, Liu L, Ma J, Ni X, Li Y, and Zeng X. “A simplified process for preparing adhesive hydroxyapatite coatings on carbon/carbon composites”. Surface and Coatings Technology 2019 377. 1016/j.surfcoat.2019.124925

Zhou W, Niu J, Xiao W, and Ou L. “Adsorption of bulk nanobubbles on the chemically surface-modified muscovite minerals”. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2019 51: 31-39 1016/j.ultsonch.2018.10.021

Zhou W, Wu C, Lv H, Zhao B, Liu K, and Ou L. “Nanobubbles heterogeneous nucleation induced by temperature rise and its influence on minerals flotation”.  Applied Surface Science 2020 508: 145282. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2020.145282

Nanolithography & Nanoink

Colloidal Probe Articles

Hua Y, King W, and Henderson C. “Nanopatterning materials using area selective atomic layer deposition in conjunction with thermochemical surface modification via heated AFM cantilever probe lithography”. Microelectron. Eng. 2008 85: 934–936 1016/j.mee.2008.01.105 (PMMA)

Nakashima H, Higgins MJ, O’Connell C, Torimitsu K, and Wallace GG. “Liquid Deposition Patterning of Conducting Polymer Ink onto Hard and Soft Flexible Substrates via Dip-Pen Nanolithography”. Langmuir 2012 28: 804–811 1021/la203356s

Salehi-Reyhani A, Sharma S, Burgin E, Barclay M, Cass A, Neil MAA, Ces O, Willison KR, and Klug DR. “Scaling advantages and constraints in miniaturized capture assays for single cell protein analysis”. Lab Chip 2013 13: 2066 1039/c3lc41388h

Protein AFM Studies

Protein AFM ARticles

Abdulreda MH, Bhalla A, Chapman ER, and Moy VT. “Atomic force microscope spectroscopy reveals a hemifusion intermediate during soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors-mediated membrane fusion”. Biophys. J. 2008 94: 648–655 1529/biophysj.107.114298

Agnihotri A, and Siedlecki CA. “Adhesion mode atomic force microscopy study of dual component protein films”. Ultramicroscopy 2005 102: 257–268 1016/j.ultramic.2004.10.006

Berg CH, Lindh L, and Arnebrant T. “Intraoral lubrication of PRP-1, statherin and mucin as studied by AFM”. Biofouling 2004 20: 65–70 1080/08927010310001639082

Cole MA, Voelcker NH, Thissen H, Horn RG, and Griesser HJ. “Colloid probe AFM study of thermal collapse and protein interactions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) coatings”. Soft Matter 2010 6: 2657 — 2667 1039/b926441h

Gaub BM, and Müller DJ. “Mechanical Stimulation of Piezo1 Receptors Depends on Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Directionality of Force”. Nano Lett. 2017 17: 2064-2072 1021/acs.nanolett.7b00177

Hussain MA, and Siedlecki CA. “The platelet integrin alpha(Ilb) beta(3) imaged by atomic force microscopy on model surfaces”. Micron 2004 35: 565–573 1016/j.micron.2004.02.010

Matin T, Utjesanovic M, Sigdel K, Smith V, Kosztin I, and King G. “Characterizing the Locus of a Peripheral Membrane Protein–Lipid Bilayer Interaction Underlying Protein Export Activity in E. coli”. Langmuir 2020 36: 2143-2152. 1021/acs.langmuir.9b03606

Senapati S, Biswas S, Manna S, Ros R, Lindsay S, and Zhang P. “A Y-Shaped Three-Arm Structure for Probing Bivalent Interactions between Protein Receptor–Ligand Using AFM and SPR”. Langmuir 2018 34: 6930-6940 1021/acs.langmuir.8b00735

Single Molecule Imaging

Single Molecule Imaging Articles

Friedrichs J, Helenius J, and Muller D. “Quantifying cellular adhesion to extracellular matrix components by single-cell force spectroscopy”. Nat. Protoc. 2010 5: 1353–1361 1038/nprot.2010.89

Iliafar S, Wagner K, Manohar S, Jagota A, and Vezenov D. “Quantifying Interactions between DNA Oligomers and Graphite Surface Using Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy”. J. Phys. Chem. 2012 116: 13896–13903 1021/jp212326x

Klinov D. V, Protopopova A. D, Andrianov D. S, Litvinov R. I, and Weisel J. W. “An Improved Substrate for Superior Imaging of Individual Biomacromolecules with Atomic Force Microscopy”.  Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 2020 196 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.111321

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