The present invention describes improved microfluidic systems and procedures for fabricating improved microfluidic systems, which contain one or more levels of microfluidic channels. The methods for fabrication the systems disclosed can provide a convenient route to topologically complex and improved microfluidic systems. The microfluidic systems can include three-dimensionally arrayed networks of fluid flow paths therein including channels that cross over or under other channels of the network without physical intersection at the points of cross over. The microfluidic networks can be fabricated via replica molding processes utilizing mold masters including surfaces having topological features formed by photolithography. The present invention also involves microfluidic systems and methods for fabricating complex patterns of materials, such as biological materials and cells, on surfaces utilizing the microfluidic systems. Specifically, the invention provides microfluidic surface patterning systems and methods for fabricating complex, discontinuous patterns on surfaces that can incorporate or deposit multiple materials onto the surfaces. The present invention also provides improved microfluidic stamps or applicators for microcontact surface patterning, which are able to pattern onto a surface arbitrary two-dimensional patterns, and which are able to pattern multiple substances onto a surface without the need for multiple steps of registration or stamping during patterning and without the need to selectively ink different regions of the stamp with different materials.
Anderson, Janelle R., Daniel T. Chiu, Noo-Li Jeon, Sui Huang, Ravi Kane, Insung S. Choi, Donald E. Ingber, George M. Whitesides