In one embodiment, a stable aqueous solution contains carbon nanotubes non-covalently functionalized with organic electro-optically active molecules, such as planar, anionic porphyrin molecules. A device containing carbon nanotubes directly functionalized with planar, anionic porphyrin molecules in a free base form may be formed using the solution as the nanotube source or the device may be formed using another method. In another embodiment, a method of spatially orienting nanostructures, such as nanotubes, includes providing a solution or a suspension containing nanostructures over a first surface of a first substrate, and combing the solution or suspension in a first direction to orient the nanostructures in the first direction over the substrate.
Collier, C. P., J. Chen
California Institute of Technology