Human myosin VIIA (HM7A) is responsible for human Usher syndrome type 1B, which causes hearing and visual loss in humans. Here we studied the regulation of HM7A. The actin-activated ATPase activity of full-length HM7A (HM7AFull) was lower than that of tail-truncated HM7A (HM7AΔTail). Deletion of the C-terminal 40 amino acids and mutation of the basic residues in this region (R2176A or K2179A) abolished the inhibition. Electron microscopy revealed that HM7AFull is a monomer in which the tail domain bends back toward the head-neck domain to form a compact structure. This compact structure is extended at high ionic strength or in the presence of Ca2+. Although myosin VIIA has five isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motifs, the neck length seems to be shorter than the expected length of five bound calmodulins. Supporting this observation, the IQ domain bound only three calmodulins in Ca2+, and the first IQ motif failed to bind calmodulin in EGTA. These results suggest that the unique IQ domain of HM7A is important for the tail-neck interaction and, therefore, regulation. Cellular studies revealed that dimer formation of HM7A is critical for its translocation to filopodial tips and that the tail domain (HM7ATail) markedly reduced the filopodial tip localization of the HM7AΔTail dimer, suggesting that the tail-inhibition mechanism is operating in vivo. The translocation of the HM7AFull dimer was significantly less than that of the HM7AΔTail dimer, and R2176A/R2179A mutation rescued the filopodial tip translocation. These results suggest that HM7A can transport its cargo molecules, such as USH1 proteins, upon release of the tail-dependent inhibition.
Sakai, Tsuyoshi, Hyun Suk Jung, Osamu Sato, Masafumi D. Yamada, Dong-Ju You, Reiko Ikebe, Mitsuo Ikebe
Journal of Biological Chemistry