The nanopatterning of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) arrays on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode using efficient and low-cost methods is described. This process used nanosphere lithography (NSL) encompassing the deposition of monolayered Polystyrene (PS) followed by a convective self-assembly drop coating protocol onto the ITO substrate that further acted as the mask after the AuNP assembly. The results showed that spin-coating allowed AuNPs to follow the contour and adhere to the PS nanospheres. The final products, after etching the PS, generated a highly ordered Au-nanohole array on an ITO substrate. The Au-nanohole arrays on the ITO electrode provided a greater surface area and successfully enhanced the peak current of electrochemical measurements by 82% compared with bare ITO and was used to detect Staphylococcus aureus 16S rRNA hybridization. In contrast to non-templated AuNP structures, the Au-nanohole arrays on the ITO electrode contributed to an optimum sensitivity improvement in DNA hybridization detection by 23%, along with an impressive limit of detection (LOD) of 10 pM. The high specificity of this distinguished structure was also achieved in the hybridization measurements of multi-analyte pathogens. These findings indicate that the combination of PS nanosphere lithography, followed by the spin-coating of AuNPs, leads to an inexpensive and simple engineering process that effectively generates uniform Au-nanohole arrays on ITO, which provides a greater surface area to optimize the electrochemical performance of the DNA biosensor.
Purwidyantri, Agnes, Ching-Hsiang Chen, Bing-Joe Hwang, Ji-Dung Luo, Chiuan-Chian Chiou, Ya-Chung Tian, Chan-Yu Lin, Chi-Hui Cheng, Chao-Sung Lai
Biosensors and Bioelectronics