A review of activities involving the development of large arrays of nanomechanical resonators is presented. This review includes demonstration of the use of these arrays for the detection of biological targets. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches to the realization of such arrays were developed. Using a top-down approach, a nanomachining method for the fabrication of large arrays of doubly-clamped silicon carbonitride (SiCN) resonators with width as narrow as 16 nm and a yield approaching 100% was developed. The specific detection of protein-A using such resonator arrays functionalized with single domain antibody fragments (sdAb) was also demonstrated with femtogram-level mass sensitivity. A nano-imprinting based fabrication of these resonator arrays was also realized, opening up their potential for cost-effective manufacturing. On a bottom-up approach, resonant silicon nanowires were also produced using directed chemical vapor deposition methods. These bottom-up resonant nanowires were in turn successfully employed for the specific detection of streptavidin with attogram-level mass sensitivity.
Guthy, C, M Belov, A Janzen, NJ Quitoriano, A Singh, VA Wright, E Finley, TI Kamins, S Evoy
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical